In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. All everyday objects that can be touched are ultimately composed of atoms, which are made up of interacting subatomic particles, and in everyday as well as scientific usage, "matter" generally includes atoms and anything made up of them, and any particles that act as if they have both rest mass and volume. However it does not include massless particles such as photons, or other energy phenomena or waves such as light or heat. Matter exists in various states. These include classical everyday phases such as solid, liquid, and gas – for example water exists as ice, liquid water, and gaseous steam – but other states are possible, including plasma, Bose–Einstein condensates, fermionic condensates, and quark–gluon plasma. Usually atoms can be imagined as a nucleus of protons and neutrons, and a surrounding "cloud" of orbiting electrons which "take up space".

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Experimental Discovery of a Tetraneutron – An Exotic State of Matter

Elusive exotic matter called a tetraneutron possibly seen in the lab

Chinese scientists want to build a powerful telescope to find dark matter

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Does dark matter really exist?

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New Insights Into Neutron Star Matter: Combining Heavy-Ion Experiments and Nuclear Theory

Dark matter: should we be so sure it exists? Here's how philosophy can help.

Astronomers Might See Dark Matter by Staring into the Void

Dark Stars: The First Stars in the Universe Could Have Been Powered by Annihilating Dark Matter