A surface, as the term is most generally used, is the outermost or uppermost layer of a physical object or space. It is the portion or region of the object that can first be perceived by an observer using the senses of sight and touch, and is the portion with which other materials first interact. The surface of an object is more than "a mere geometric solid", but is "filled with, spread over by, or suffused with perceivable qualities such as color and warmth". The concept of surface has been abstracted and formalized in mathematics, specifically in geometry. Depending on the properties on which the emphasis is given, there are several non equivalent such formalizations, that are all called surface, sometimes with some qualifier, such as algebraic surface, smooth surface or fractal surface.

Read more in the app

New study unveils why gold (111) surface forms the herringbone texture

Save $300 on this powerful Surface Laptop 4, an ideal coding laptop for students

A 'galactic underworld' of ancient, blown-up stars lurks just beneath the Milky Way's surface

MESSENGER Reveals a More Dynamic Mercury Surface

Surface mapping a reliable diagnostic tool for gut health

Earth’s surface may be teeming with trillions of dark matter particles

Diamond From 660 Kilometers Below Earth's Surface Reveals a Water-Rich Environment

NASA’s Juno To Skim the Surface of Jupiter’s Icy Moon Europa

New technique allows researchers to scrape beyond the surface of nanomaterials

Save $400 on this Microsoft Surface Pro X tablet that can replace a laptop

An integrated modeling framework to assess surface and ground water resources

New software platform advances understanding of the surface finish of manufactured components

Scientists Uncover a “Missing Link” – Sea Secrets Surface in the Great Australian Bight

Stunning 'sunglint' turns the sea's surface into a swirling silver mirror

China to help UAE land rover on Moon’s surface

Mars Stunner: NASA Rover Delivers Most Detailed View of Red Planet's Surface Ever Captured

Could More of Earth’s Surface Host Life? Jupiter’s Orbit Is Key

NASA Used a 2 Megapixel Camera to Capture This 1.6 Billion Pixel Panorama of Mars' Surface

HiRISE Captures Barchan Dunes Carving Beautiful Shapes on The Surface of Mars

Could more of Earth's surface host life?