A supervolcano is a volcano that has had an eruption with a Volcanic Explosivity Index of 8, the largest recorded value on the index. This means the volume of deposits for such an eruption is greater than 1,000 cubic kilometers. Supervolcanoes occur when magma in the mantle rises into the crust but is unable to break through it. Pressure builds in a large and growing magma pool until the crust is unable to contain the pressure and ruptures. This can occur at hotspots or at subduction zones. Large-volume supervolcanic eruptions are also often associated with large igneous provinces, which can cover huge areas with lava and volcanic ash. These can cause long-lasting climate change and threaten species with extinction. The Oruanui eruption of New Zealand's Taupō Volcano was the world's most recent VEI-8 eruption.

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