Southern Ocean

The Southern Ocean, also known as the Antarctic Ocean, comprises the southernmost waters of the World Ocean, generally taken to be south of 60° S latitude and encircling Antarctica. As such, it is regarded as the second-smallest of the five principal oceanic divisions: smaller than the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian oceans but larger than the Arctic Ocean. Over the past 30 years, the Southern Ocean has been subject to rapid climate change, which has led to changes in the marine ecosystem. By way of his voyages in the 1770s, James Cook proved that waters encompassed the southern latitudes of the globe. Since then, geographers have disagreed on the Southern Ocean's northern boundary or even existence, considering the waters as various parts of the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian Oceans, instead.

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World's largest iceberg breaks free, heads toward Southern Ocean

Climate Change Is Threatening “Sea Butterflies” Life Cycle – And It Could Upend the Entire Southern Ocean Ecosystem

Global warming puts whales in the Southern Ocean on a diet

Iron shortage threatens microbes key to food chain in Southern Ocean

Scientists call for setting limits, possible moratorium on fishing in Antarctica's Southern Ocean

Southern Ocean takes on the heat of climate change

Scientists hope ‘world’s loneliest tree’ will help answer climate questions. New Zealand researchers believe the isolated spruce could reveal much about the Southern Ocean, one of the world’s major carbon sinks

'Factorian Deep,' the new deepest point in Antarctica's Southern Ocean, mapped for the first time

'Factorian Deep,' the new deepest point in Antarctica's Southern Ocean, mapped for the first time

Scientists have made the most precise map yet of the mountains, canyons and plains that make up the floor of Antarctica's encircling Southern Ocean. Covering 48 million sq km, this chart for the first time details a new deepest point - a depression lying 7,432m down called the Factorian Deep.

Scientists Create New High-Resolution Map of Southern Ocean

The Southern Ocean as never seen before

Human-made iron inputs to the Southern Ocean ten times higher than previously estimated

Southern Ocean storms cause outgassing of carbon dioxide

Study Confirms Southern Ocean Is Absorbing Carbon – Important Buffer for Greenhouse Gas Emissions

Study Confirms Southern Ocean is Absorbing Carbon

NASA-supported Study Confirms Strength of Southern Ocean Carbon Sink

Aircraft reveal a surprisingly strong Southern Ocean carbon sink

The Southern Ocean is still swallowing large amounts of humans’ carbon dioxide emissions

Researchers identify behavioral adaptations that may help Antarctic fishes adapt to warming Southern Ocean