Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that, through cellular respiration, can later be released to fuel the organism's activities. Some of this chemical energy is stored in carbohydrate molecules, such as sugars and starches, which are synthesized from carbon dioxide and water – hence the name photosynthesis, from the Greek phōs, "light", and synthesis, "putting together". Most plants, algae, and cyanobacteria perform photosynthesis; such organisms are called photoautotrophs. Photosynthesis is largely responsible for producing and maintaining the oxygen content of the Earth's atmosphere, and supplies most of the energy necessary for life on Earth. Although photosynthesis is performed differently by different species, the process always begins when energy from light is absorbed by proteins called reaction centers that contain green chlorophyll pigments/chromophores.

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Whole-body regeneration has been identified in photosynthetic sea slugs. The slugs shed their entire body, including the heart, and while the body is detached the head takes on chloroplasts from algal food. These chloroplasts are used for photosynthesis, thought to aid survival of the severed head.

Scientists Discover How “Photosynthetic” Algae Can Survive and Grow in the Dark

'Photosynthetic' algae can survive the dark