Neuroimaging is the use of quantitative techniques to study the structure and function of the central nervous system, developed as an objective way of scientifically studying the healthy human brain in a non-invasive manner. Increasingly it is also being used for quantitative studies of brain disease and psychiatric illness. Neuroimaging is a highly multidisciplinary research field and is not a medical specialty. Neuroimaging differs from neuroradiology which is a medical specialty and uses brain imaging in a clinical setting. Neuroradiology is practiced by radiologists who are medical practitioners. Neuroradiology primarily focuses on identifying brain lesions, such as vascular disease, strokes, tumors and inflammatory disease. In contrast to neuroimaging, neuroradiology is qualitative but sometimes uses basic quantitative methods. Functional brain imaging techniques, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging, are common in neuroimaging but rarely used in neuroradiology.

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