Neanderthals are an extinct species or subspecies of archaic humans who lived in Eurasia until about 40,000 years ago. While the cause of their extinction remains "highly contested", demographic factors like small population size, inbreeding, and random fluctuations are considered likely factors. Other scholars have proposed competitive replacement, assimilation into the modern human genome, great climatic change, disease, or a combination of these factors. It is unclear when the line of Neanderthals split from that of modern humans; studies have produced various intervals ranging from 315,000 to more than 800,000 years ago. The time of divergence of Neanderthals from their ancestor H. heidelbergensis is also unclear. The oldest potential Neanderthal bones date to 430,000 years ago, but the classification remains uncertain. Neanderthals are known from numerous fossils, especially from after 130,000 years ago.

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Combe-Grenal Neanderthal Hunting Strategies Were Unaffected by Climate Change

Up to 35 skulls and horns of large animals found buried two meters deep in the ground of a cave — Evidence from remains in Spain may suggest Neanderthal behaviour that seems to have no subsistence-related purpose, but to be more symbolic in its intent

Neanderthal Diet Included Crab Meat, Archaeologists Say

Human and Neanderthal brains have a surprising 'youthful' quality in common

In the Neanderthal site of Combe-Grenal, France, hunting strategies were unaffected by changing climate

Forensic Anthropology Expands the View on Human-Neanderthal Interbreeding

Antibiotics encoded in Neanderthal DNA could help us fight infections

Evidence of ancient Neanderthal hunter discovered in the English Channel

The plot thickens: new study reveals complex identity of ancient Britons. Do bones and teeth found in Sussex share characteristics with Neanderthal fossils from northern Spain?

For the first time, researchers have identified a Neanderthal family: a father and his teenage daughter, as well as several others who were close relatives. They lived in Siberian caves around 54,000 years ago.

50,000-year-old DNA reveals the first-ever look at a Neanderthal family

First Neanderthal Family Revealed by DNA From Remote Siberian Cave

Neanderthal Genes Hint at Family Structures of a Close-Knit Community

Neanderthal family life revealed by ancient DNA from Siberian cave

Meet the first Neanderthal family

Nobel prize in medicine awarded to geneticist who sequenced Neanderthal genome

Rebecca Wragg Sykes on the objects that reveal the Neanderthal mind

What Makes Your Brain Different From a Neanderthal’s?

Study: Much of Neanderthal-Modern Human Interbreeding Took Place in Near East

Life As Told By a Sapiens to a Neanderthal review: Joyful curiosity