Los Angeles, often referred to by its initials L.A., is the largest city in the U.S. state of California. With a population of roughly 3.9 million as of 2020, it is the second largest city in the United States after New York City and one of the world's most populous megacities. Los Angeles is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic and cultural diversity, Hollywood film industry, and sprawling metropolitan area. The city of Los Angeles lies in a basin in Southern California, adjacent to the Pacific Ocean extending through the Santa Monica Mountains and into the San Fernando Valley. It covers about 469 square miles, and is the seat of Los Angeles County, which is the most populous county in the United States with an estimated 9.86 million as of 2022. Home to the Chumash and Tongva indigenous peoples, the area that became Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542.