Arctic Ocean

The Arctic Ocean is the smallest and shallowest of the world's five major oceans. It spans an area of approximately 14,060,000 km² and is known as the coldest of all the oceans. The International Hydrographic Organization recognizes it as an ocean, although some oceanographers call it the Arctic Mediterranean Sea. It has been described approximately as an estuary of the Atlantic Ocean. It is also seen as the northernmost part of the all-encompassing World Ocean. The Arctic Ocean includes the North Pole region in the middle of the Northern Hemisphere and extends south to about 60°N. The Arctic Ocean is surrounded by Eurasia and North America, and the borders follow topographic features: the Bering Strait on the Pacific side and the Greenland Scotland Ridge on the Atlantic side. It is mostly covered by sea ice throughout the year and almost completely in winter.

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Frequent marine heat waves in the Arctic Ocean will be the norm, says new study

Frequent Arctic Ocean Heatwaves Set to Become the New Climate Reality

PFAS flow equally between Arctic Ocean and Atlantic Ocean

New research explains 'Atlantification' of the Arctic Ocean

Invasion of the Arctic Ocean by Atlantic plankton species reveals a seasonally ice-free ocean during the last interglacial

The Atlantification of the Arctic Ocean Is Underway

A Warmer Arctic Ocean Leads to More Snowfall in Northern Eurasia

A Caustic Shift Is Coming for the Arctic Ocean

Warmer climate causing acidification of the Arctic Ocean

New dataset reveals biological 'treasure trove' of Arctic Ocean

Multiple Earth simulations show ocean acidification peak in Arctic Ocean may shift from winter to summer

Western Arctic Ocean is acidifying four times faster than other oceans

The Global “Plastic Flood” – Even the High North Arctic Ocean Can’t Escape Microplastic Pollution

Unexpected fish and squid found in the Central Arctic Ocean

Big Surprise for Researchers When Unexpected Fish and Squid Found in the Central Arctic Ocean

Meltwater influences ecosystems in the Arctic Ocean

Killer Whales Lingering in Newly Melted Arctic Ocean, Despite Risks of Ice Entrapment

Orcas are spreading further into the Arctic Ocean as sea ice melts

The Arctic Ocean Was Invaded by Its Neighbor Earlier Than Anyone Thought

Flawed Climate Models? Arctic Ocean Started Getting Warmer Decades Earlier Than We Thought